X-LIGHT 광소결 / 광신터링 기술
(X-LIGHT SINTERING TECHNOLOGY)
SIGNIFICANCE OF NANOPARTICLES
- All materials have basic properties
- Melting point, light absorption (color) etc.
- Governed by laws of particle physics
- These are independent of particle size
Melting point for a gram of copper is the same as for a kg of Copper. It still looks like the same material
- Once materials become around the size of 1 to 100 nanometers quantum physics becomes significant
- Their Melting point changes
- Optical absorption characteristics change: Quantum Dots
- Opens up new possibility of sintering at significantly lower temperature when compared to bulk material.
- Gold 1064 C bulk 300 C when 25nm
CONDUCTIVE NANO PARTICLE INKS
- Basic Principle
- Start with nanoparticle conductive ink
- Deposit on substrate
- Use low temperature to achieve sinter
- Convert to Bulk conductive material,
- nanoparticle properties change
- Melting point, color etc.
- Two different categories of conductive nano inks
- Basic Sintering –e.g. Silver
- Reduction and Sintering –e.g. Copper
- Why Sinter Conductive Inks
- Melting point of metals are usually higher than plastics (the substrate)
- Would make conductive traces (printed circuits) onflexible materials
Could be applied by regular printing process like roll to roll or inkjet.
SINTERING SILVER NANO PARTICLES
- Silver is relatively easy to sinter
- Silver is Conductive as is Silver Oxide
- Nanomaterial is easy(er) to produce
- Yield is high even if bulk is expensive
- Energy required is low nanoparticle size 5-
- Traditional process.
- Use 120 C thermal for around 10 minutes.
- Shiny finish good conductivity.
- Using X-Light Lamp
- Excellent Conductivity
- Matt finish due to rapid formation
- Copper Is harder to sinter
- Copper is conductive, Copper oxide not a good conductor. Copper readily oxidizes
- Nanomaterials are harder to produce
- Yield is low even if bulk is cheaper
- Energy required is significantly higher
- Is the “Holy Grail” for Printed electronics technology
- Typically Sintering also requires a reduction of copper oxide to copper.
- Some Oxidizing material in the ink may be required
- Small margin between energy to sinter and energy to evaporate material
COPPER CIRCUITS–BEFORE & AFTER SINTERING
MEETING THE NEEDS OF HIGH SPEED PRINTING
- In addition to low temperature curing, there are additional benefits of X-Light curing that make it suitable for printable electronics.
- By reducing the time to cure milliseconds, X-Light curing can be compatible with high-speed printing processes such as gravure and flexography without a large amount of dedicated floor space. In essence, the time to cure becomes matched to the time to print.
- The process is suited to nanoparticle-based materials, which also makes it well-suited to high resolution deposition methods and applications.
- The speed with which sintering occurs makes it possible to cure copper in air, which normally must be cured in an inert or reducing environment.
- Once a material has been sintered, it will typically no longer absorb light. Thus there is the potential for building multilayer circuitry that does not thermally stress the underlying layers.
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